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What are the Basic Elements of a Computer Network?

The parts of any computer system that are used to install network hardware and software are referred to as the computer’s network components. NIC, switch, cable, hub, router, modem, etc. are the names of these devices.

Computer network components come in two different varieties. both hardware and software components. In order for you to fully comprehend the network components of the computer, we have explained them in depth in this essay.

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What are the elements of a Network?

The purpose of this network of hardware and software components that make up a computer network is to move data and information from one device to another and to make it simple for two separate computer systems to communicate with one another.

Every computer system needs these network components to set up a network. The following list of various computer network components is provided.


The Server is the organization’s “brain” in terms of computers. All of the information is stored, processed, and distributed by it.

Clients access the server to get information. A server is typically required by larger organisations like universities, schools, hospitals, government agencies, etc. When linked to a network and the internet, your desktop or laptop can function as a server.

A computer system is made up of various computer parts. Servers and clients are two types of computers.

A computer that provides its services to others is known as a server. You can keep all of your personal files in one place, for instance, by using a file server.


On behalf of clients, it is a computer software that handles requests.

Servers can be computer programmes that run on a single system or multiple machines that communicate with one another across a network. A server, in particular, may offer a service to multiple customers simultaneously.

In a computer system, the client is a physical element necessary for communication with the server. Typically, a client shows the data sent by the server or performs particular duties sent by the server or the client.

Transmission Media

The physical channels that transfer data to or from a computer, computer network, and an end device, such as a terminal, mobile phone, or printer, are known as transmission media.

Examples may be wireless and telephone networks, copper lines, fibre optics, and so on.

High-speed data and video applications (300 Mbps to 5 Gbps) use fibre optic cable. Various forms of wireless communication include radio, microwave, satellite, and WiMAX.

The Internet is a global network of networks that links every computer in the world to every other computer through a network of hubs and routers. The Internet is the most effective and flexible of all of our communication channels.

NIC (Network Interface Cards)

Computers can connect to networks and the internet via devices called network interface cards (NICs).

Computers can connect to the network without any software or drivers thanks to the network card.

They are put into the motherboard’s card slots.

Network cards mostly come in two varieties. PCI slots are used to install PCI NICs.


The hub is the component that links several network devices. This is the device to which you connect various network devices.

In computers, it’s also referred to as a switch. Hubs are used to link together printers, keyboards, and computers.

A hub is a component that supports numerous connections. It established a focal point for communication.

Hubs are basic devices with no setup or intelligence.

It is merely a point of connection. When a network device sends a signal to a hub, the hub rebroadcasts that signal to all other network devices attached to it.


A switch is nothing more than an intelligent bridge used to connect two LAN segments. The connected nodes’ MAC addresses are automatically learned.

When a frame arrives on a port, it checks its MAC address table for the address and sends the frame to the correct port.

A switch merely stores the header in its memory rather than the entire frame.


A router is a network connection tool for the internet. Between the networks, the data flow is modified and routed by it.

Based on the destination address of the data packets passing through it, a router sends network traffic to the appropriate location.

Packets must be forwarded to other networks by a router.

A data packet is forwarded to another network via a router after being received from one network. A router is also in charge of managing various IP addresses, which are network addresses.

On a computer network, every device has a distinct network address. A packet’s destination address is matched by the router to the appropriate network device.

Last Words

With the least amount of overhead, a good network increases efficiency, security, and innovation. Only a solid design and implementation based on an understanding of the demands of the business can achieve this. Even though building a network may just appear like a technical task, it also involves commercial input, especially in the beginning. Workflows must adapt to new technologies and expand and change as a result of network management.

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